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ФЭУ / Иностранные языки / Топик по английскому языку Исследования космоса

(автор - student, добавлено - 25-11-2012, 00:24)
Исследования космоса
Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in space. Frequently, the term includes research in the upper atmosphere using sounding rockets and high-altitude balloons.

Space research should not be confused with Space science, which is one of many research disciplines addressed by space researchers. The process of space exploration involves a lot of space research, but space research additionally includes usage of space technology for a broader spectrum of research disciplines, including Earth science and materials science.

Space research emerged as a field of research based on the advancing rocket technology of the 1940s and 1950’s. In 1948-1949 detectors on V-2 rocket flights detected x-rays from the sun. Sounding rockets proved useful for studies of the structure of the upper atmosphere. As higher altitudes were reached, the field of space physics emerged with studies of aurorae, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Notable as the start of satellite-based space research is the detection of the Van Allen radiation belt by Explorer 1 in 1958, four months after the launch of the first satellite, Sputnik 1. In the following year space planetology emerged with a series of lunar probes, e.g. the first photographs of the far side of the moon by Luna 3 in 1959.

The early space researchers obtained an important international forum with the establishment of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958, which achieved an exchange of scientific information between east and west during the cold war, despite the military origin of the rocket technology underlying the research field.

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